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Hindu Caves Located in the Sahyadri hills near Aurangabad, Ellora is the most important second-wave site of ancient rock-cut architecture in India. Remove Ads Advertisement. Bibliography Craven, R. Indian Art. Harle, J. Yale University Press, Michell, G. Hindu Art and Architecture.
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Mitter, P. Oxford University Press, About the Author Mark Cartwright. Mark is a history writer based in Italy.
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His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Related Content Filters: All. A map of the caves and temples at Ellora, in Maharastra, central This war scene shown in a temple frieze in the Kailashanatha Temple A guided tour of the amazing Kailasa Temple at the Ellora caves A number of explanations have been put forward for this [ 10 ], including high density of caves and amount of karst [ 11 , 55 ], high productivity [ 11 ], proximity to the sea and enhanced opportunities for invasion [ 53 ], proximity to groundwater [ 60 ], and the long and complex geological history of the region [ 53 ].
There is much less information available on epikarst species richness outside Slovenia, with the exception of Romania [ 40 , 61 ].
For five Romanian caves, mean number of stygobiotic copepods per cave was 4. This puts it lower than the Dinaric karst both for mean cave and regional species numbers, but higher than Alpine and Isolated regions in Slovenia.
Eme et al. Within the Dinaric karst, there is no relationship, at the level of individual cave, between epikarst hotspots and hotspots for other components of the subterranean fauna. Many of the single cave hotspots for the non-epikarst fauna e. However, in the case of the epikarst fauna sampled in the eight caves in the Dinaric karst in this study, comparison with other parts of the subterranean fauna can be made.
The species diversity patterns are the result of using the individual drip samples as replicates for each cave or more properly, each 1 km 2 quadrat , but each individual drip actually drains a separate miniature subsurface basin [ 64 ], which may differ among themselves in terms of area drained and response time to precipitation events [ 23 ].
A single drip is the outlet of a miniature drainage basin. Typical subsurface drainage basins emerging in karst springs are tens to hundreds of square kilometers in size [ 65 ], while the calculated area of three epikarst drips ranged less than 1 m 2 to slightly more than m 2 [ 23 ].
At this very small scale, the average species richness in a drip contributed 10 percent three species of total regional species richness overall. Caves, corresponding to a 1 km 2 quadrat, contributed approximately an additional 30 percent of total species diversity in all the regions. This is not so different from the results of Malard et al. A few drips contribute a disproportionate share of species diversity. If indeed the pattern of epikarst species diversity is one of regional differences but the result of a few hotspots, perhaps about 10 percent of sampled drips, then accumulation curves may be misleading.
They measure the probability of including a hotspot drip, rather than a sample of similar drips all of which may contain all the species see [ 66 ] for a similar problem. This is not a suggestion to abandon accumulation curves, but rather to also consider that there is some unmeasured fine-scale difference that is important. It manifests itself in the form of a small number of hotspot drips, and a relatively small number of drips largely determine overall species diversity.
These fine-scale differences are also relevant to any fauna protection plan so that small hotspots are not ignored.
While it is tempting to focus on the individual drip and the drip pool beneath it if one is present , it is not the drip pool but the overlying epikarst that is the critical habitat. The pool is typically a subsample of the epikarst fauna, with less specialized elements present as well [ 27 ].follow site
Because the epikarst is typically shallow only a few meters in depth [ 21 — 23 ] , the focus of any successful epikarst protection plan should be the protection of the surface landscape and processes. Tone Novak assisted with the field work in Zguba jama, and David Carlini helped us navigate through R. Comments of three reviewers and the editor greatly improved the manuscript. Browse Subject Areas?
Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Materials and methods Study area Slovenia is one of the most karstified countries in the world, with almost half of its land area covered by karst landscapes, with more than 10, known caves [ 29 ]. Download: PPT. Fig 1. Map of Slovenia with its four karst regions from [ 31 ] along with sampling sites.
Table 1. List of Slovenian caves sampled for epikarst copepods, number of drips, average number of samples taken, sampling start date, and karst region defined in [ 33 ]. Fauna Samples were collected with a funnel in a continuous filtering device described in [ 19 ] and removed at monthly intervals for sorting and identification. Data analysis Species richness and its standard error were estimated using the individual based Mao-tau analytical function [ 34 ], and the Chao1 estimate of total richness [ 35 ], using EstimateS 9. Results Spatial pattern of epikarst species richness A total of 30 species were found in the 81 drips sampled in 13 caves Table 2.
Table 2. List of stygobiotic copepod species found in the 81 drips in 13 caves in Slovenia, along with the number of drips and caves each species was found in. Table 3. Epikarst copepod species richness in the 13 Slovenian study caves, ranked from highest to lowest species richness. Table 4. Distribution of the number of species in the 81 drips sampled, arranged according to the cave in which they occur.
Partitioning of species diversity among hierarchical scales The distribution of number of epikarst copepod species per drip, scaled by the total number of epikarst copepod species in the cave provides a visualization of the partitioning of species richness Fig 2. Fig 2. Histogram of the number of copepod species per drip scaled to the total number copepod species found in the cave where the drip is located. Table 5. Minimum, maximum, and mean number of stygobiotic copepod species S per drip S d , and total cave species richness.
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Comparison of observed and estimated total epikarst copepod species richness for the Alpine karst, Isolated karst, and the Dinaric karst. Fig 3. Species accumulation curves for stygobiotic epikarst copepods in Slovenian caves. Fig 4. Accumulation curves for epikarst copepod species in the Alpine dotted line and Dinaric solid line karst. Fig 5. Discussion Geographic pattern At the regional scale, species richness is highest in the Dinaric karst, relative to both the Alpine and Isolated karst. Epikarst—cave comparisons Subterranean biologists have been slow to summarize species richness and diversity patterns, both because of the general difficulty in sampling caves and the recognition that high levels of endemism [ 52 ] result in incomplete species lists.
Partitioning species diversity The species diversity patterns are the result of using the individual drip samples as replicates for each cave or more properly, each 1 km 2 quadrat , but each individual drip actually drains a separate miniature subsurface basin [ 64 ], which may differ among themselves in terms of area drained and response time to precipitation events [ 23 ].