In the two experiments, the proposed model and platform manage real-time environmental data. The sensors are in-situ sensors whose location is fixed during the observation. SensorML can describe both in-situ and mobile sensors [ 37 ] such as the GPS receiver sensor on moving taxis in the Sensor Web Service Platform [ 42 ] and a camera sensor on a car [ 35 ].
The air quality information from the pollutants is mined using the AQI method, while the soil moisture thematic map is constructed from the observed data using the IDWI method. The time from data collection to observation to server is 1. The request and visualization time of SOS is 2.
The soil moisture mapping time is 7. The time efficiency means it can meet the requirements of many types of environmental data applications, as the examples air quality monitoring and soil moisture monitoring in this study show. Therefore, the real-time GIS data model and Sensor Web Service Platform are seamlessly integrated to manage real-time environmental data. The main aim of this study was to propose a method integrating a real-time GIS data model and a Sensor Web Service Platform under a Geospatial Service Web framework for environmental data management.
Two experiments, real-time air quality monitoring and real-time soil moisture monitoring in Wuhan, were performed. The experimental results show that using the proposed method to manage real-time environmental data is feasible and effective. Future work will focus on analyzing the scientific problems associated with the two experimental results. As the objective of the experiments is to demonstrate the proposed model and platform under a GSW framework and their applications for environmental data management, the management processes are illustrated in two experiments, instead of an analysis of the implied meaning and reason for the results.
Int J Health Geogr. Published online Jan 9. PMID: Corresponding author. Received Nov 17; Accepted Dec This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Effective environmental data management is meaningful for human health.
Real-time GIS data model and sensor web service platform for environmental data management
Results To support the realization of the proposed real-time GIS data model, a Sensor Web service platform is implemented. Conclusions The experimental results show that the method integrating real-time GIS data model and Sensor Web Service Platform is an effective way to manage environmental data under the Geospatial Service Web framework.
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Background Environmental data are some of the most critical information sources for evaluating, preventing, and alleviating the adverse effects of the environment on human health. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Sensor Sensor : Various sensors containing space-borne, air-borne, and ground sensors.
Observation Observation : The behaviour of observable attributes from various sensors provides observational data for the model. Geographic Object Geo-Object : Either physical entities or social phenomenon formed naturally or artificially, expressed with clear boundaries or not, as the objects of GIS research in the real world. Object Object : Single entity in the real world; a Geo-Object can contain one or multiple objects. Spatiotemporal Process StProcess : The Spatiotemporal Process is a periodized change process of a complex geographic phenomenon in a timeline, and the processes refer to a series of Geo-Objects and their interactions.
Simulation Simulation : Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. State State : A snapshot of a geographic object at a point of time in the change process. Change Function ChFunction : In the time of research, the correspondence between an instant and the values of geospatial and thematic properties. This function can be derived from industry, scientific computing, and relevant experience.
Sensor web service platform A Sensor Web can obtain, access, manage, and process sensor data in a standardized way in real-time or near real-time [ 32 — 35 ]. Figure 2.
The framework of the Sensor Web Service Platform. Results To demonstrate the proposed method for environmental data management, a Sensor Web Service Platform was implemented that supported the realization of the real-time GIS data model.
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Figure 3. Sensor Retrieval Module: retrieves motion sensors, in-situ sensors, and remote sensors according to the specified filter criteria, such as time, space, subject, and other constraints;. Sensor Observational Data Retrieval Module: provides access to various types of sensor observation data according to the specified filter conditions and then shows these observational data in Map World in different ways;.
Sensor Control Module: controls in-situ sensors and video sensors, and provides feedback for sensor control based on these changes in sensor observational data or the method of accessing sensor observational data;. Sensor Planning Module: performs video sensor planning tasks and remote sensing satellite simulative planning tasks;. Thematic Map Module: generates thematic maps with observation data; the maps can reflect the overall situation in a specific area;.
Real-time air quality monitoring With the rapid economic growth and urbanization in Wuhan the capital city of Hubei province in China , air-pollution events such as fog or haze strike Wuhan many times each year. Figure 4. Table 1 The parameters of the real-time GIS model for air quality monitoring. Figure 5. Real-time soil moisture monitoring Soil moisture is an important environmental indicator for studying climate change, reflecting the degree of agricultural drought, and guiding agricultural irrigation. Figure 6. Implementation of the soil moisture monitoring.
Table 2 The parameters of the real-time GIS model for real-time soil moisture monitoring. Figure 7. Figure 8. Soil moisture mapping based on real-time observation data. Discussion We proposed a method based on a novel real-time GIS data model and its realization called the Sensor Web Service Platform for real-time environmental data management. Conclusions The main aim of this study was to propose a method integrating a real-time GIS data model and a Sensor Web Service Platform under a Geospatial Service Web framework for environmental data management.
Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors' contributions JGong conceived the original idea.
Contributor Information Jianya Gong, Email: nc. References 1. Environmental data management with the River Basin Information System. Kiev, Ukraine: Ieee Computer Soc; ArcObjects-based eco-environmental data management information system for Three Gorges Project; pp. Pokorny J.
Data-base architectures: Current trends and their relationships to environmental data management. Environ Model Softw. New generation sensor web enablement. Geospatial service Web. Geospatial technology for earth observation. New York: Springer; The Sensor Web: Systems of sensor systems.
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A Spatial Data Infrastructure for Environmental Noise Data in Europe
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