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Abstract Despite frequent calls for the overhaul of null hypothesis significance testing NHST , this controversial procedure remains ubiquitous in behavioral, social and biomedical teaching and research. Keywords: test of significance, test of statistical hypotheses, null hypothesis significance testing, statistical education, teaching statistics, NHST, Fisher, Neyman-Pearson. Introduction This paper introduces the classic approaches for testing research data: tests of significance, which Fisher helped develop and promote starting in ; tests of statistical hypotheses, developed by Neyman and Pearson ; and null hypothesis significance testing NHST , first concocted by Lindquist Fisher's approach to data testing Ronald Aylmer Fisher was the main force behind tests of significance Neyman, and can be considered the most influential figure in the current approach to testing research data Hubbard, Among things to consider when setting the null hypothesis is its directionality.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Highlights of Fisher's approach Flexibility. Neyman-Pearson's approach to data testing Jerzy Neyman and Egon Sharpe Pearson tried to improve Fisher's procedure Fisher, ; Pearson, ; Jones and Tukey, ; Macdonald, and ended up developing an alternative approach to data testing.
A priori steps Step 1—Set up the expected effect size in the population. Figure 2.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A posteriori steps Step 7—Calculate the test value for the research RV test. Highlights of Neyman-Pearson's approach More powerful. Null hypothesis significance testing NHST is the most common procedure used for testing data nowadays, albeit under the false assumption of testing substantive hypotheses Carver, ; Nickerson, ; Hubbard, ; Hager, Replication needed, meta-analysis is useful.
Repeated sampling of same population needed, Monte Carlo is useful. NHST None results taken as definitive, especially if significant ; further studies may be sometimes recommended especially if results are not significant. Conflict of interest statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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